I‘m new to app development and the whole distribution process, so bear with me.
How can I upload my app (not the Xcode project) and share it with a few people who then can run and test it?
Answering my own post: I downloaded the testflight App but I find that it requires too much from me to prepare and have to tha approvement process of Apple. That's too much in this early phase.
Isn't there a way to post my app to my own cloud drive or cloud and share it with some persons I'll invite?
What is required to make an App installable outside of Xcode?
Might want to look into ad-hoc distribution. See Xcode Help.